Thermal process engineering

Water Air
Soil             Waste

The basis of thermal process engineering is thermal separation processes. In mixtures made up of at least two components, heat and material transfer processes are used to selectively change the composition (concentration) of the mixture.

Introduction to chapter “Thermal process engineering”

Drying and evaporation
In general, drying refers to the removal of moisture from solids, gases or liquids. In the context of thermal process engineering, evaporation is understood to be the separation of a solvent from a solution.
CE 130
CE 715
Convection drying Rising film evaporation
Drying curves for granular solids                   Concentration of temperature-sensitive solutions
Absorption and adsorption
Thermal processes are used to remove gaseous contaminants. The exhaust gas should largely be free of dust, which means mechanical cleaning needs to take place initially.
CE 400
CE 540
CE 405
Gas absorption    Adsorptive air drying     Falling film absorption
Separating a CO2/air mixture by absorption in counterflow                  Basic principle of adsorption and desorption           Separation of oxygen from an air flow by absorption in a falling film column
CE 583
Adsorption of dissolved substances on activated carbon
Distillation / rectification
Distillation is a unit operation that can be used to fractionate liquid mixtures. It utilises the different volatility of the components of the mixture to be separated. Rectification is an application of distillation and its uses include fractionation of crude oil. In practice, this multi-stage distillation process is carried out in the form of countercurrent distillation (rectification) in a column.
CE 600
CE 602
CE 610
Continuous rectification           Discontinuous Rectification          Comparison of rectification column
Continuous and discontinuous rectification with packed and sieve tray column                      Comparison of packed and sieve tray columns in rectification                                                     PLC controlled continuous rectification with packed and sieve tray column                                    
Crystallisation and membrane separation processes
Crystallisation is a unit operation in thermal process engineering, and is mainly used for separation and cleaning but also for shaping substances. Compared to filtration, membrane separation processes remove much smaller substances, such as viruses and dissolved ions, from the water. The driving forces of the separation process are differences in concentration or pressure between the two sides of the membrane.
CE 520
CE 530
Cooling crystallisation   Reverse osmosis
Investigation of crystal growth in a fluidised bed                                                                                Membrane separation process for recovering the solvent from a salt solution
Liquid-liquid extraction involves using a liquid solvent to remove a liquid component from a liquid mixture. Solid-liquid extraction allows soluble components to be removed from solids using a solvent.
CE 620
CE 630
Liquid-liquid extraction   Solid-liquid extraction
Separation of a two-component liquid mixture by extraction in counter-current with a solvent                                                                 Continuous or discontinuous extraction of the soluble components of a solid mixture using a revolving extractor