Strength of materials

Water Air
Soil             Waste
Strength of materials deals with the effect of forces on deformable bodies. In addition, material-dependent parameters should be considered as well. An introduction to the strength of materials is, therefore, given by the concept of stress and strain and by Hooke’s law, which is applied to tension, pressure, torsion and bending problems.


Elastic deformations
The load from external forces causes stresses in the components. The mesh of the material is deformed under the action of a force, e.g. compressed, stretched etc. Elastic deformation means the atoms return to their original position after the action of the force has ceased.
SE 110.14
SE 110.47
SE 110.29
Elastic line of a beam                                               Methods to determine the elastic line   Torsion of bars                                                       
Demonstration of Maxwell-Betti theorem                                                                                Determination of elastic lines of a beam under load using the principle of virtual work and Mohr’s Analogy   Investigation of elastic torsion of bars with open and closed cross-section                                             
SE 110.20
SE 110.44
WP 100
Deformation of frames                                                    Deformation of trusses                                                                  Deformation of bars under bending or torsion                  
Elastic deformation of a statically determinate or overdeterminate frame under point load Application of Castigliano’s first theorem                                                 Influence of material, cross-section and clamping length on deformation                       
WP 950
FL 170
TM 262
Deformation of straight beams                     Deformation of curved-axis beams      Hertzian pressure                                 
Elastic lines of statically determinate and overdeterminate beams under various clamping conditions   Principle of virtual forces for calculating deformation                                                                Demonstration of the resulting characteristics of the contact area as a function of the contact force  
TM 400
Hooke’s law
Elastic behaviour of tension springs under load  
Buckling and stability

Long and slender components such as rods, beams, supports etc. may end up in indifferent or unstable equilibrium states and buckle if they are exposed to a force along the rod axis under compressive stress. The mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler defined four typical buckling cases to calculate the buckling force in rods.

SE 110.19
SE 110.57
WP 120
Investigation of simple stability problems                       Buckling of bars                                                                Buckling behaviour of bars                        
Determination of the buckling load under different conditions SE 112 Mounting Frame required Determination of the buckling load: influence of material, support, and shear force   Correlation between buckling length, buckling load and various methods of support  
WP 121
Demonstration of Euler buckling  
Verification of the Euler theory of buckling and buckling behaviour under the influence of material, cross-section, length, and support  
Compound stress

Experimental equipment to investigate components in which two or more basic stresses are present simultaneously.

FL 160
WP 130
Unsymmetrical bending Verification of stress hypotheses
Investigation of symmetrical and unsymmetrical bending on a beam. Combined bending and torsion loading using an eccentric force.         Multiaxial loading of samples by bending and torsion                                                                                                                                                   
Experimental stress and strain analysis
Two methods of non-destructive experimental stress and strain analysis are presented here: - the electrical method of strain measurement using strain gauges to indirectly determine the actual stresses - the photoelastic method for a direct representation of the stress distribution.
FL 101
FL 102
FL 120
Strain gauge application set                 Determining the gauge factor of strain gauges Stress and strain analysis on a membrane  
Complete equipment for practising manual handling of strain gauge technology    Basic introduction to measurement with strain gauges for tension, bending and torsion    Investigation of deflection and strain to determine the gauge factor of strain gauges    
FL 140
FL 210
FL 100
Stress and strain analysis on a thick-walled cylinder Photoelastic demonstration                     Strain gauge training system                       
Triaxial stress state in the cylinder wall; cylinder with strain gauge application on surface and in wall                                                                                                              Representation of distribution of stress and stress concentrations in component models. Can be used in conjunction with an overhead projector. Basic introduction to measurement with strain gauges for tension, bending and torsion                                                                                                                                                
FL 152
FL 130
FL 200
Multi-channel measuring amplifier        Stress and strain analysis on a thin-walled cylinder Photoelastic experiments with a transmission polariscope
Processing of analogue measuring signals for FL 120FL 140 and for GUNT trusses Investigation of axial and circumferential stress in a thin-walled cylinder under internal pressure Visualisation of mechanical stresses in models subject to varying loads